Πυθαγόρas (Pythagoras) was born 570 B.C
“through music and music cognition of the numerical structure of the Cosmos”
The numerical structure TETRAKTYS was symbolically expressed in the (” quaternions “), the amount of the first four numbers 1 +2 +3 +4 = 10, containing the basic musical intervals: the octave (2:1), quinte (3:2) and a quart (4:3).
Pythagoras ascribed to the idea of the sphericity of the Earth (among other considerations, he probably was guided by the idea of symmetry between the shape of the Earth and the celestial sphere).
It is believed that Pythagoras identified the Morning and Evening Star (Hesperus and Phosphorus) from Venus.
He introduced a geometric division of the celestial sphere into zones (arctic, tropical, etc.) and the Earth.
Furthermore, it seems that Pythagoras was the first who gave to the world the wide name “space”.
He is also the author/creator of the word “philosophy”.
Pythagoras probed the cosmos with mathematics and observation, introduced number as a fundamental constituent of the cosmos.
This started a tradition of using geometry in measuring and understanding the natural world and the cosmos.
The Pythagorean theorem (the square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle equals to the sum of the squares of the other two sides of the triangle) mirrored that tradition.
The Golden Ratio, Spiral… harmony…
Pythagoras thought of the Earth and the other heavenly bodies as spheres moving around an invisible fire at the center of the universe.
He connected the mathematical ratios of the sounds he heard from his monochord musical instrument to the music of the spheres in the heavens.
He blended music, mathematics and astronomy in his search for harmony in the cosmos, a perfect, beautiful, and eternal world of stars governed by natural laws and order.
Pythagoras united the heavens and the Earth. He helped his students understand the movement of the heavenly spheres; he shed light on the eclipses of the sun and the moon.
He guided his listeners to reading the night sky and studying astronomy for a better understanding of the geometry, beauty and harmony of the heavens.